[농사잡록1]식물을 길들이는 인간 1부



 

 

인간이 먹을거리 등으로 식물을 이용하기 시작한 것은 언제부터인가요? 역사 시간에 배운 것처럼, 인간이 농경을 시작한 이른바 "신석기 혁명" 무렵보다 더 오래전부터 식물을 이용했을 겁니다. 실제로 그 시기보다 더 오래된 구석기 시대의 유적에서도 식물을 이용한 여러 유적과 유물들, 그리고 식물체들이 발굴되고 있지요. 당시에는 수렵과 채집이라는 생업 방식을 통하여 야생의 식물을 먹을거리로 이용했을 겁니다.

그러다가 농경이 시작되면서는 식물을 이용하는 양상이 확 달라집니다. 야생의 식물을 인간이 목적하는 바에 따라 길들이는, 이른바 작물화 과정을 겪게 되었습니다. 서아시아 쪽에서는 그 지역에서 발굴되는 작물과 관련된 여러 유물을 통해 대략 1만 년 전을 전후하여 밀이 작물로 길들여졌다는 것이 정설입니다. 다른 무엇보다 밀이 갖는 상징성과 중요성 때문에 그렇지 여타의 식물들도 작물로 길들여지기 시작했을 것이라 추정할 수 있습니다.

아무튼 그때부터 농업을 선택한 농경민들은 여러 가지 식물을 작물로 길들이게 됩니다. 인간이 어떠한 식물을 작물로 길들이고, 또 그 작물을 바탕으로 새로운 품종을 만드는 일을 우리는 육종(breeding)이라 부릅니다. 그를 위하여 활용하는 방법 가운데 가장 쉽게 접근할 수 있는 것이 "도입 육종"이라든지, "분리 육종"이라고 부르는 방법입니다. 도입 육종은 말 그대로 한 작물이나 그 품종들을 내가 사는 지역이 아닌 외부의 다른 지역에서 가지고 들어와 재배하는 것을 말합니다. 토종 씨앗을 수집하러 가서 할머니들을 만나 이야기를 나누다보면 한번쯤 듣는 내용이 있습니다.

 

"이거? 이거는 내가 시집올 때 가지고 온 거야. 친정 엄마가 이게 좋다고 해서 가져 왔지."

이런 류의 이야기 아니면, 

"그거 내가 이웃 마을에 갔더니 그게 좋다고 해서 얻어다가 계속 심는 거지." 하는 식의 이야기 말이지요.

 

이렇게 어떤 작물의 씨앗을 외부에서 새로 가져와 재배하는 육종법을 도입 육종이라 합니다.

그런가 하면 분리 육종은 이런 방식입니다. 어느 농민이 어떤 작물을 어떠한 농경지에서 재배하고 있었습니다. 그런데 아주 우연히 자연적으로 돌연변이가 발생하든지, 아니면 자연 교잡을 통해서 기존의 것들과 달리 요상하게 생기거나 맛이 다르거나 색이 다른, 아무튼 무언가 다른 특성을 보이는 개체가 발생하는 겁니다. 그럼 눈 밝고 부지런한 농민 같은 경우, 그걸 그냥 허투루 넘기지 않지요. 그 개체의 씨앗을 따로 받아서 잘 챙겨 놓았다가 이듬해에 다시 그것만 따로 심습니다. 그러면 거기에서 내가 원하던 특성을 지닌 작물도 나오고, 아닌 작물도 나오고 제각각이 나타납니다. 그럼 그중에서 또 내가 원하는 특성을 지닌 것만 따로 골라내 씨앗을 받아 이듬해에 또 심고, 다시 골라내고 하는 과정을 반복하다 보면 드디어 내가 바라는 특성만 나타나는 품종이 생기게 됩니다. 이를 고정이 되었다고 표현하는데, 이게 바로 분리 육종의 과정입니다.

과거의 농민들은 대략 이 두 가지 방식을 이용해서 오랜 옛날부터 새로운 품종, 이른바 신품종이라거나 개량종이라 부르는 걸 만들어 왔습니다. 그때는 농민이 곧 육종가인 시대였던 것이지요. 농민이 육종가의 역할까지 도맡아 하던 시대는 현대 과학이 그를 대신하며 끝나게 됩니다.2부에서는 그 일을 다루어 보겠습니다. 그나저나 어느덧 봄이 왔습니다. 올해 텃밭에는 어떤 씨앗을 심으려고 하시나요? 혹시 가능하다면 나만의 작물을 직접 육종하는 일을 해보시는 건 어떨까요.

 

[농사잡록]은 김석기 선생님의 연재코너입니다. 강희맹 선생의 [금양잡록]에서 따온 이름입니다. '농사와 관련된 잡다한 기록'이란 뜻입니다.

저작권자 서울도시농업 e소식, 무단 전제 및 재배포 금지

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